Guest Post by Felix Lev

Today viXra log is proud to host a guest post by one of our regular contributors to the archive. Felix Lev gained a PhD from the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow) and a Dr. Sci. degree from the Institute for High Energy Physics (also known as the Serpukhov Accelerator). In Russia Felix Lev worked at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna). Now he works as a software engineer but continues research as an independent physicist in a range of subjects including quantum theory over Galois fields.

Spreading of Ultrarelativistic Wave Packet and Redshift

In standard cosmology, the red shift of light coming to the Earth from distant objects is usually explained as a consequence of the fact that the Universe is expanding. This explanation has been questioned by many authors and many other explanations have been proposed. One of the examples – a recent paper by Leonardo Rubio “Layer Hubble and the Alleged Expansion of the Universe” in viXra:1206.0068.

A standard explanation implies that photons emitted by distant objects travel in the interstellar medium practically without interaction with interstellar matter and hence they can survive their long (even billions of years) journey to the Earth. I believe that this explanation has the following obvious flaw: it does not take into account a well-known quantum effect of wave-packet spreading and the photons are treated as classical particles (for which wave-packet spreading is negligible). The effect of wave-packet spreading has been known practically since the discovery of quantum mechanics. For classical nonrelativistic particles this effect is negligible since the characteristic time of wave-packet spreading is of the order of ma2/ℏ where m is the mass of the body and a – its typical size. In optics the wave-packet spreading is usually discussed in view of the law of dispersion ω(k) when a wave travels in the medium. But even if a photon travels in empty space, its wave function is a subject of wave-packet spreading.

A simple calculations the details of which can be found in my paper viXra:1206:0074, gives for the characteristic time t* of spreading of the photon wave function a quantity given by the same formula but with m replaced by E/c2 where E is the photon energy. This result can be rewritten as t* = 2πT(a/λ)2 where T is the period of the wave, λ is the wave length and a is a dimension of the photon wave function in the direction perpendicular to the photon momentum. Hence even for optimistic values of a this quantity is typically much less than a second.

If spreading is so fast then a question arises why we can see stars and even planets rather than an almost isotropic background. The only explanation is that the interaction of photons with the interstellar medium cannot be neglected. On quantum level a description of the interaction is rather complicated since several processes should be taken into account. For example, a photon can be absorbed by an atom and reemitted in approximately the same direction. This process is an illustration of the fact that in the medium the speed of propagation is less than c: because after absorbing a photon the atom lives some time in an excited state. This process plays an important role from the point of view of wave-packet spreading. Indeed, the atom emits a photon with a wave packet of a small size. If the photon encounters many atoms on its way, this does not allow the photon wave function to spread significantly.

In view of this qualitative picture it is clear that at least a part of the red shift can be a consequence of the energy loss and the greater the distance to an object is, the greater is the loss. This phenomenon also poses a problem that the density of the interstellar medium might be much greater than usually believed. Among different scenarios discussed in the literature are dark energy, dark matter and others. As shown in my papers (see e.g. viXra:1104.0065 and references therein), the cosmological acceleration can be easily and naturally explained from first principles of quantum theory without involving dark energy, empty space-time background and other artificial notions. However, the other possibilities seem to be more realistic and now they are intensively studied.

44 Responses to Guest Post by Felix Lev

  1. D R Lunsford says:

    Many holes in this argument, but I’d point out a better one here that is utterly simple.


  2. Leo Vuyk says:

    My proposal is that the Hubble redshift is the Dark matter influence on the fabric of spacetime.
    Professor Renate Loll (University of Utrecht nl.)
    wrote on the fabric of spacetime:
    “One of the biggest challenges of theoretical physics today is to identify the fundamental “atoms of spacetime geometry” and understand how their interactions give rise to the macroscopic spacetime we see around us and which serves as a backdrop for all known physical phenomena.”

    My proposal is that the fourth dimension seems to be the oscillation speed (potential time base) of the Higgs doublets along the Cosmic lattice edges of the vacuum spin field.
    In my Quantum Function Follows Form model, Higgs particle doublets are supposed to oscillate in “tandem” (like a boxer piston engine) along each vacuum lattice edge, to be able to transfer photonic information properly. ( )
    This system need to have Higgs particle doublets because otherwise it would be impossible to have a decent information transition system at the vortices.
    In this system, one lattice edge is supposed to equal one Planck length.
    The spiral structure of the vacuum lattices gives the vacuum a chiral influence on spinning and merging Fermion particles and a photonic polarisation.
    The chirality of this system is supposed to be the origin of our material universe.
    Around black holes, the Higgs lattice system will be absorbed by the black hole and as a consequence, the vacuum is thinned and the Planck length will vary and locally even
    As a consequence, the lightspeed of radiation passing the black hole, will decrease and suffer a redshift.
    However, if we assume that black holes of multiple sizes, are the same thing and origin of clumpy Dark Matter found around Galaxies, then the Hubble redshift is not a tell tale of the expansion of the universe, but the influence of the Higgs vacuum eating black holes.
    See: Construction Principles for Chiral “atoms of Spacetime Geometry”.

    • G Srinivasan says:

      Re: “atoms of spacetime geometry”. Indeed that perspicuous statement of yours pins down the problem in Physics and Cosmology. I have been stating in every comment I make Physics must hasten to create a shift in paradigm towards an axiom based theoretical derivation. The common denominator in space is a “spectrum of vibrations” playing havoc with logic for these cannot exist under any circumstance without a support structure despite GR’s geodesic classification.. If we say that space is in a static state we introduce the problem of creating a dynamic causative mechanism. The clue already exists in the famous zero point energy oscillations but unfortunately there has been no attempt to derive a theoretical formulation to justify it. There has been a pitiable attempt to create a harmonic oscillator but the Hamiltonian needs inputs that that cannot even be defined and the exercise has been even labeled as the “problem of the harmonic oscillator”. I will introduce a dynamic axiomatic state that exists at the fundamental density level of space. It is called the Perpetual Harmonic Oscillator (PHO) that can only decay in infinite time. The space components (it does not matter what it is) that create the critical matter density in it, interact with adjacent unit in all three axial directions setting up a dense core state with boundary at twice component radius as a volumetric oscillator. It is in a balanced harmonic state where in the core and boundary parameters interactively exchange colliding density with the expanding spin angular momentum to sustain the dynamism in infinite time. The dense core is forms the fermionic state of the Nucleon and the oscillating boundary creates the bosonic counterpart of the leptonic state in which the electrons emerge as momentary fermions. When that balanced state is interupted the entire spectrum of vibrations are produced as a reaction that culminates with the periodic emission of the photon. The process cannot be detected tillthe quantum state of the photon is created ,else its only the interactive stresses transmigrating fro higher to lower oscillatory rate as Neutrinos. If interested in the absolutely accurate mathematical derivation from axioms see web
      Sankhya slide ppt, PHO state, etc.

      • Leo Vuyk says:

        In my Q-FFF-model, TIME is assumed to run forward (or: right-handedness of clocks) because the universe is like a
        huge pinball machine. Spinning Fermions (the pinballs) are driven by the dual oscillating Higgs field (the electric pinball-springs) which is supposed to be the origin of the general increase of entropy, base of the second law of thermodynamics.
        However dark matter in the form of black holes will constantly eat the dark energy of the Higgs field and decrease universal entropy again, reason to postulate a pulsating and cyclic universe. see my vixra letters.
        Universal Symmetry is not broken if we accept that each material universe is entangled at a very long distance with at least one anti-material copy universe, equipped with opposite chirality inside the oscillating Higgs lattice field.
        As a consequence Time never runs back in anti-material
        entangled universes, clocks have simply left-handed rotation over there, because of the CP symmetry!!
        SO time is the motion of local clocks!

      • Leo Vuyk says:

        I have to make an addition to my former entangled pinball machine universal image.
        We could live inside one (the material part) of two entangled pinball machine universes, to be able to let electrons and even atoms interfere with themselves inside the famous one-particle two slit interference experiment.

  3. vmguptaphy says:

    Dear Felix Lev,

    It is a pleasure to read an explanation different than de-broglie red shift for shift in spectrum to the red in light received from stars on earth.

    As a Pico-Physicist, I believe space is taken as strongly conserved by mainstream physics. It is more conserved than energy as even from the prospective of observer, it is conserved.

    In PicoPhysics space is not conserved. It is consumed by matter and otherwise continuously created (and hubble’s constant represent the rate it is created). As photon travels through the space, with passage of time, the occupied space (in direction of drift) increases. This is obviously proportional to the distance travelled. This gives an impression of expanding universe, to those who attribute the shift in frequency to originate at origin (source) rather than along the path.

    Yours is first account of a view different than expanding universe.

    PicoPhysics also accounts for some observations that has lead physicists to accelerating expansion or oscillating expansion rate. This is attributed to variation in space density as well as present of dark matter (which affectively reduces the space that is generated along the path of photon).

    Presently we are trying to convince physicists of Unary Law of Picophysics ‘Space contains Energy’. This is the only law in PicoPhysics that integrates our known experiences of nature.

    Thanks and Regards,
    Vijay Gupta

    Further details on picophysics are available at

  4. vmguptaphy says:

    Dear Flex,

    In your post, you have mentioned an equation that concerns the dimension of photon in a direction perpendicular to the photon momentum. I am interested in knowing the following;

    1. Is it constant (In PicoPhysics it is constant due to specific corrolariy to unary law ‘Space contains Energy’.
    2. If it is constant, what is the value?
    In PicoPhysics, we consider are inclined to believe is constant, and does not change with frequency or wavelength. The action at a distance (diffraction and interference are explained without variation in this value in PicoPhysics).

    If our results match, it will be very encouraging for me to continue to make efforts in exposing PicoPhysics to mainstream scientists.

    Thanks & Regards,
    Vijay Gupta

    Your words:

    Your words:
    This result can be rewritten as t* = 2πT(a/λ)2 where T is the period of the wave, λ is the wave length and a is a dimension of the photon wave function in the direction perpendicular to the photon momentum.

  5. alexsisxela says:

    *waits for sane person to comment*

  6. Felix Lev says:

    The idea of the post was simple: if we accept quantum theory then it is insufficient to just say that the effect of the wave packet spreading (WPS) of the photon wave function is not important. We should try to calculate this effect and to understand whether our intuition is correct or not. In my paper I show that the calculations are rather simple and WPS is important. But this seems to be incompatible even with the fact that we can see stars and even planets. So the impression is that a simple picture when light travels to the Earth practically without interacting with the interstellar matter does not work.

    My observation is that even many physicists working in quantum theory are not familiar with the effect of WPS. So far in all the comments this effect has not been all.

    P.S. Note to vmguptaphy: “a” is the size of the photon wave function in the perpendiclar direction; I do not see reasons to think that it is a constant.

  7. There is always pilot wave operated matter waves also ply the role
    :“One of the biggest challenges of theoretical physics today is to identify the fundamental “atoms of spacetime geometry” and understand how their interactions give rise to the macroscopic spacetime we see around us and which serves as a backdrop for all known physical phenomena. Quantum Function Follows Form model, Higgs particle doublets are supposed to oscillate in “tandem” (like a boxer piston engine) along each vacuum lattice edge, to be able to transfer photonic information properly. This system need to have Higgs particle doublets because otherwise it would be impossible to have a decent information transition system at the vortices. In this system, one lattice edge is supposed to equal one Planck length. The spiral structure of the vacuum lattices gives the vacuum a chiral influence on spinning and merging Fermion particles and a photonic polarisation. The chirality of this system is supposed to be the origin of our material universe.
    Around black holes, the Higgs lattice system will be absorbed by the black hole and as a consequence, the vacuum is thinned and the Planck length will vary and locally even increase. As a consequence, the lightspeed of radiation passing the black hole, will decrease and suffer a redshift.
    But sometimes it is blue shifted as fast traveling waves out of compression and expansion as the wave length correspondingly increased or decreased. As linearity population is increased than the chirality naturally the speed may increase., possibly becomes a matter wave having the speed more than that of speed of llight leading to sudden disappearance and appearing at a distance. called a blue slagger. Dynamics. This happens in between a compression and expansion. A new kind of such as pilot wave is sometimes operative with a phase velocity of the matter wave is inversely proportional to the wave length. Possibly a particle becomes a wave like nature at u=c2/v. The frequency plays the main role on which the matter becomes a wave as gliding hologram. By a scattering principle the reflection at 45 degree cone becomes refraction and in between positive and negative refractive index of neutrality neutral plane there seems to be fast propagation. There is a pilot wave that is also operative
    Presented here is a study of recollision in Kr2+ ions, from which a measurement of the size of the returning electron wave packet has been made. The ultrafast (40fs) laser field has been varied from linear polarization to circular, via a series of elliptical polarizations, while maintaining a constant distribution of sequential ionization as a function of intensity.The phenomenon of nonsequential double ionization is a continuing area of research. The recollision model has been roposed4), whereby an electron is initially tunnel ionized but then returns to the core and causes further ionization. It is well documented that recollision can occur when the laser field is linearly polarized, but not when it is circularly polarized The ionized electron is accelerated away from the core by the electric field, but as the field changes sign for the next half cycle, it can be driven back along its path to the core if the field is linearly polarized. However, if the field is circularly polarized, the electron will be deflected from its path by the perpendicular component of the laser field, and be unable to return to the core. Elliptically polarized light is used in this experiment to control the motion of the electron wave packet in the laser field.
    As the laser field controls the recolliding electron, the point at As the laser field controls the recolliding electron, the point at which the electron first enters the continuum is also of great importance. The recollision model requires the electron to be released near the peak of the oscillating field. At the point of recollision, the initial electron must have enough energy to ause secondary ionization. The most likely velocity of an electron returning to the core corresponds to a kinetic energy of .17 times the ponderomotive potential4 As the laser field controls the recolliding electron, the point at hich the electron first enters the continuum is also of great mportance. The recollision model requires the electron to be released near the peak of the oscillating field. At the point of ecollision, the initial electron must have enough energy to ause secondary ionization. The most likely velocity of an lectron returning to the core corresponds to a kinetic energy of .17 times the pondero motive potential
    Cross polarisation at criticality produces ejection of Twisters. As the laser field controls the recoiling electron at the point of cross polarisation that terminates the ionization instead produce twister of Nyquist amplification of powerful self generation that can be applied in solar optical panels of Wind turbine blades that may rotate out of amplified power. Undulated –induced Transparency of magnetized plasma works have been carried out by Mikhil D.Tukmman et al As per their conclusion the compressed using right hand polarised circularly polarised wave As per the experiment carried by E.M.I.English ,J.wood W.A.Brayan et al of department of physics and astronomy ,University college Lodon Elliptically polarised light used in in this experiments control the motion of electrons..But a postulate by Sankaravelyudahn Nandakumar indicates that Speed of light may exeed the c velocity critically if opposite spin relative velocity cone i initiated that deals with disaapearane and emerging at a distance. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle in Quantum mechanics in photon gain momentum perpendicular to the original direction of propagation and spreadout forming a barrier screen of hologram under diffraction of light and if Planck constant is boldly reduced half of the previous value ,the the quantum argument for diffraction would claim that uncertainty momentum can be smaller and the momentum perpendicular to the original direction of propagation will be smallest as accepting gracing angle sinumerical aperture (NA) /variable refractive index at n0 >1 or,<1 calls for the investigation between circularly polarised wave of electron/atom The axis results in infinity its axial velocity component as the velocity reaches √2c applying Einstein’s mass /energy equation of m= m0/√1-v2/c2 leading to i mass as gamma becomes 1/√-1 and disappeaares into space and realised at the outside barrier point. in the existing direction as the deBrogle wave length by h/p=h/mv associated with motion of electrons. Through its momentum is finally renormalized as it enters no
    Sankaravelyudhan Nandakumar under various papers submitted to Hubble research unit ha pointed out the implication of amplified twisters for technology applications as supportive Renewable energy source .(refer paper submitted to
    Ion yields from recollision have been used to estimate the dispersion of the returning wave packet. The fact that results re in good agreement with other studies indicates that this is a valid technique, using the well established mechanism of collision ionization. the factors to be considered as a result of electron-ion interaction include elastic scattering of the electron for above threshold ionization. Following collision, defined by the impact meter, electrons are produced with much greater energy than the ponder motive potential. This will yield further information about the angular dependence of correlated electron ave packet production. control of the returning electron wave packet by the laser field
    has also been demonstrated. This is of importance for high harmonic generation, leading to attosecond pulse production..A cross polarisation of opposite spin is also is required during the collision
    Astrophysics Application: Finally this gives a space science application as a very hot star will have its peak in the blackbody intensity distribution and shorter wavelength resonate for circular to linearity as compression and expansion of wavelength as a result move a red to blue shifted Blue slaggar star for a tremendous speed of acceleration in between Planck’s constant variations along wit the new theory of sliding hologramP.N.Appleton and J.M Schombert et al of University of Michcan has long back indicated that Verontsov-Velyaminov(1959). HI observations confirm that the blue knots are part of a rotating disk system (NGC2445)' and are probably not dynamically separate entities (Appleton et a1
    According to Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity, instantaneous action-at-a-distance was seen to violate the relativistic upper limit on speed of propagation of information. If one of the interacting objects were to suddenly be displaced from its position, the other object would feel its influence instantaneously, meaning information had been transmitted faster than the speed of light.
    One of the conditions that a relativistic theory of gravitation must meet is to be mediated with a speed that does not exceed c, the speed of light in a vacuum. It could be seen from the previous success of electrodynamics that the relativistic theory of gravitation would have to use the concept of a field or something similar.
    This problem has been resolved by Einstein's theory of general relativity in which gravitational interaction is mediated by deformation of space-time geometry. Matter warps the geometry of space-time and these effects are, as with electric and magnetic fields, propagated at the speed of light. Thus, in the presence of matter, space-time becomes non-Euclidean, resolving the apparent conflict between Newton's proof of the conservation of angular momentum and Einstein's theory of special relativity. Mach's question regarding the bulging of rotating bodies is resolved because local space-time geometry is informing a rotating body about the rest of the universe. In Newton's theory of motion, space acts on objects, but is not acted upon. In Einstein's theory of motion, matter acts upon space-time geometry, deforming it, and space-time geometry acts upon matter

    Electron particle acting as interference wave in the system of entering a barrier along with electron particle that act as a guide wave by analogy could be used in a new propulsion system. The ring radiation could be confined with John Pendry’s invisible cloaking screen the exiting pulse is strongly chirped: short wavelengths are propagating faster than the long wavelengths.
    The idea came to me when magician David Copperfield throw the card through the window glass on the other side that penetrated the glass without any damage that promoted my line of thought
    IMAGINE a material with a refractive index equal to unity through which a narrow-band electromagnetic wave with frequency w and wave number can propagate with the group velocity c/w , where is the speed of light in vacuum. Such a material could serve as a perfect compressor of the electromagnetic energy: an electromagnetic wave incident on a material slab would not undergo any reflections due to the perfect impedance matching with vacuum, yet be compressed in length by a factor G=C/vg. Although such materials do not exist in nature, they have been synthesized in the laboratory. The phenomenon enabling such materials is the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) [ EIT enables propagation of an electromagnetic wave through the normally opaque medium in the presence of a second, more powerful electromagnetic wave. The left-hand circularly polarized (LHCP) wave propagates without absorption. A right-hand circularly polarized (RHCP) electromagnetic wave launched along the magnetic field and having the frequency (where is the electron cyclotron frequency) is resonantly absorbed by the plasma:
    Matter waves velocity seems to be c2/v faster than velocity of light. This could possibly be realize with reference to light wave resonate between circular ring formation as compressed and expanded wave. Using PIC simulations that extreme energy compression of electromagnetic radiation is possible in a magnetized plasma made transparent by an addition of a weak helical undulator. For this compression to occur, a right-hand circularly polarized electromagnetic wave has to be coupled into the plasma at the electron cyclotron frequency. Although without an undulator this wave would be absorbed by the plasma via electron cyclotron heating, plasma becomes transparent due to the phenomenon of UIT. Because the electromagnetic wave in the UIT plasma is primarily longitudinal, it can be useful for various accelerator applications. Realistic plasma density and magnetic field profiles were accountedA fixed-frequency linearized fluid code was used to model cross-polarization coupling. Qualitatively, the mode coupling can be understood inthe framework of geometric optics. Future work will study the large-field effects in the plasma, and investigate how an effective accelerator with the longitudinal electric field approaching wave breaking limit can be designed
    Future application in matter sliding holograms:Basically electron mat act as particle by relative compression of magneticfield that decreases the wave length forming a particle and the same particle that becomes a wave for randomizing barrier. This may be possible by projecting a similar medium surroundin the space vehicle. Which act like a guide wave.This may be future renormalizing hologram technic using such a system dynamics in optics .
    Sankara Velayudhan Nandakumar retired Chief Engineer member PNAS ,American ,JILA,NIST ,Hubble Group member on behalf of Loyola college of Engineering and technology ,Member American committee for the Weizman institute of science ,Energy renovation committee cape Institute of Technology,Nagercoil ,former Guest lecturer ,KNSK Engineering college ,Anna University Now Assistant professor MET Engineering college has surprisingly found out genetic mirror

    • vmguptaphy says:

      My view as a PicoPhysicist (see it is an interesting attempt to reconnect mainstream physics interpretations of mathematical manipulated reality with reality itself. Specially the statement at the beginning, “One of the biggest challenges of theoretical physics today is to identify the fundamental “atoms of spacetime geometry” and understand how their interactions give rise to the macroscopic spacetime we see around us and which serves as a backdrop for all known physical phenomena.”

      Reflects the confusions in mainstream physics. It is not ready to shed scores of assumptions it has made to understand each singular phenomenon of nature.

      In []Pico-Physics [/link]by distinguishing between conservation with and without neutralization, it is possible to elevate a simple statement of fact ‘Space contains Energy’ to level of law of nature. This Unary law is able to integrate all observations of nature into a single thought process with minimal of additional assumptions directed towards understanding a particular observation.

      For example,
      1. The distinction between macro, micro evaporates. This law is directly valid in all dimensions. No distinction required on this basis.
      2. Unary law directly translates to natural quantization and binding of space. No the understanding of quantum phenomenon is well integrated into PicoPhysics.
      3. The PicoPhysics concept of time as distance between events and Samay as distance between instants, integrates relativistic observation on nature into unary law.
      4. The concept of space as non-conserved reality leading to varying density, integrates gravitation and various difficult to understand astronomical observation as well as refraction of light.
      5. Refraction of light is seen in PicoPhysics as the basic interaction between space and energy. It is called unary interaction. All other interactions in nature are explained based on refraction of light.
      6. The formation of matter (containment & localization of energy) is also explained based on refraction as interaction between space and energy.
      7. The understanding on formation of matter leads us to integrate all significant properties (inertia, electrodynamics, complex particle formation atoms & nucleuses, stability and decay etc.) associated with elementary particles with matter.
      8. Finally we have an energy cycle dark energy ->matter->Cosmic Background Radiation->dark matter that explains distribution of energy in universe as relative life in different stages.

      In PicoPhysics, by creating a distinction between conservation with and without neutralization, we can create a thought processes with can potentially integrate the laws of universe from mainstream physics and answer many questions that remains un-answered.

      Vijay Gupta

  8. G Srinivasan says:

    While admire Felix Lev’s attempt to correct one of the most serious errors in physics through the back door, the real reason for the red shift fiasco lies in the measurement of light velocity by Michelson, Morley and a host of others. The field is space has a critical matter density of 3.6E minus 25 kg/cum . Hence the concept of light travelling through an empty space is absolutely wrong. The space density is in a dynamic state and the interactive stresses in it transmigrate at various rates but when it exceeds a limit the quantum is formed and is “seen” to be a radiating phenomena. The stresses prior to the quantum formation has a value of 9.5 E minus 35 kg mass or 53.45 Electron volts and forms the smallest of 7 Neutrinosas Ne When the quantum is formed 7 Nes merge to become a quanta or Photon that transmigrates as a stress vortex and is not a wave in the strictest sense. Hence The Photon of 7 Nes forming the Planck’s constant h has a mass value of 371.7 Electron volts( EV) less then seven Nes of 374.17 EV the difference being the value of 7 Ne mass coupling constant of 151.8.
    Since the Nes and Photons transmigrate in the space density (shown above) the interactions causing it create a periodic displacement at a standard frequency and is calculated as follows using the principle of self similarity. The cycle of ten interactions is used as the non dimensional value and the displacement ratio x as 0.618 which gives CS as 10 ^ (2/x^3)= 2.965759 x 10^8 cycles / 10 cycles and if we equate unit displacement as meter and 10 cycle as 1 sec we arrive at the AXIOMATIC, unchanging velocity of light in the stress driven domain of space. The value of CS is smaller than the experimental velocity of light as C= 299792458 m/s by a ratio 1.010845. The log value of 1.010845 = 1/213.45 and is the exact ratio of the Earth orbit radius Ro = 1.49E+11 and Solar bu surface radius Rs of 6.986E+8. This is not an accident. but an axiomatic derivation that shows the gravity field at it critical densi has stress transmission frequency of CS that mediates all forces from gravity to the max at the electromagnetic spectrum. Reiterating the Ne and Photon spectrum also transmigrate at the same frequency CS and at 1 meter/sec displacement it equals the velocity of light as recorded. The difference in value of Cs and C equaling log Rs/Ro proves conclusively that the recorded value of light by Michelson et al is a BLUE SHIFT. The value of Cs is the forms the base frequency of space and all electromagnetic waveform and light beyond a certain distance gets absorbed in space The Photon having a 374 EV starting value reduces proportionately over distance 6.28 E+17 meters or as Hubble calculated 48500 meters per Mega Parsec. Hubble’s detected the correct value of the phenomena but interpreted it wrongly by comparing with C -299792458 whereas he should have compared with CS =296575900. The difference between C and Cs is 3216491 in meters which naturally gave the result as a RED SHIFT. There cannot be a red shift from a radiated photon at any time unless the objects are speeding apart. First and foremost any light received from any radiated source MUST show a blue shift because the Photon MUST be accelerated sufficiently to overcome the universally present space impedance of 371 ohms which coincidentally equals the Planck s constant h of 374 EV . This is again not an accident for we have two outstanding proofs as the Pioneer anomaly and the Flyby anomaly that can be shown mathematically to be correct based on the above explanation. In case those interested can see website for full details from an axiom based theory that has solved all anomalies in Physics.

  9. alexsisxela says:

    It’s an intriguing idea. I’m sorry that I can’t follow all the technical details of the paper, but I have a few (possibly naïve) questions:

    1. Could you explain why wave packet spreading should have a finite time in which to occur, rather than the proper time of flight of the photon in the v -> c limit which would be zero?

    2. I would have expected that the introduction of an interstellar medium with significant optical properties would slow the photons and give rise to wave packet spreading, not remove it. Is that not the case?

    3. How would the cosmic microwave background look from this perspective? Could its smoothness be modeled by wave packet spreading?

  10. Could it be that a wave packet is only a wave packet when it is not observed ? Once observed it becomes a particle (photon), it is the entanglment between our consciousness and the wave packet (even if it there is extremely little energy left, the structure of the remains of the packet rest the same) that is the origin from the “emetgence” of the photon. Once observed the photon is “absorbed” and does not exist any more. Observation is the end of the particle.

    • alexsisxela says:

      Absolutely. But if there is a spatial spread of each wave packet, there will be a corresponding spread of arrival times for a set of photons emitted simultaneously. For something like a gamma ray burst billions of light years away, which may have a duration of less than a second, a tiny level of WPS would result in a very noticeable spread of photon arrival times, contrary to what is observed.

  11. vmguptaphy says:

    The arguments to accept or reject interpertations of mathematical results based on intuition or reasonableness such as this, that discovers and answers the reality on case by case basis, is what PicoPhysics seeks to dispense with. In PicoPhysics attempt is made that mathematical manipulation carries with it the changes in nature.

  12. Felix Lev says:

    Dear Alex Sisxela and Wlhelmus de Wilde,

    Thank you for important remarks. First I will try to answer three questions by Alex Sisxela.

    1) The dependence of the photon wave function on t is defined by the relativistic Schroedinger equation with the relativistic Hamiltonian. So t is our time. Then we calculate spreading and the result is that spreading takes place only in the direction perpendicular to the photon momentum. So in the longitudinal direction there is no spreading and this indeed can be interpreted such that in this direction our time is replaced by the “proper” time as Alex Sisxela says.

    2) The main goal of the paper is to show that a naive picture when photons are independent and treated as classical particles does not work if the photons propagate in the empty space. There is a wide literature where physicists tried to explain the redshift as a result of interaction of photons with the interstellar medium. However even physicists working in this approach acknowledged that this would result in blurring of images which is not observed (see e.g. the article “Tired Light” in Wikipedia). The problem of calculating the interaction of photons with the medium is very complicated. I note that if a photon is absorbed by an atom and then reemitted then after the reemission its wave function has small dimensions. If the photon encounters many atoms on its way then this might be a mechanism which does not allow the photon wave function to spread significantly. But this is only a qualitative consideration.

    3) I note that in view of WPS it is possible that at least a part of the relic radiation consists of photons emitted by the existing stars. For example if those photons did not interact with the interstellar medium, their wave function is spread significantly and we observe those photons as an almost continuous isotropic background. But this is only a qualitative consideration.

    The subsequent discussion between Alex Sisxela and Wlhelmus de Wilde is important since indeed we know about the photons only when they are detected. It cannot be excluded that the state of the photon field is strongly coherent, i.e. a picture that we can treat photons as independent does not work. The approximation that they are independent and are moving along classical trajectories is in fact the approximation of geometrical optics which seems to work since we observe interference effects only when slits has dimensions of the order of microns but not centimeters or meters. This is a complicated problem.

    Let me note again that what seems to be clear from
    my calculations is that photons cannot be treated as classical particles and so the naive picture that they move along classical trajectories without spreading does not work. So the main problem is even not the redshift but why we can see stars and even planets at all. The problem is very complicated and I believe that even physicists learning general physics should know that the problem exists (to say nothing about physicists learning quantum physics). However, the impression is that the majority of physicists are not aware of this problem.

    • Leo Vuyk says:

      Dear Felix,

      Do you think that in contrast with the tired light solution my proposal for the dark matter influence on “atoms of Spacetime Geometry” could have a chance to fit in your math?.
      see before and Construction Principles for Chiral “atoms of Spacetime Geometry”.

  13. Felix Lev says:

    Dear Leo,

    Probably we have different approaches on space-time, dark energy etc. For example, in my recent FQXI essay and in other papers I argue that the notion of the space-time background is not physical and in and
    references therein I argue that the cosmological acceleration can be easily and naturally explained from first principles of quantum theory without dark energy, space-time background and other artificial notions. But I see nothing wrong in the dark matter idea. Whether it will help in solving the problem raised in my paper on wave packet spreading: it is a difficult problem which needs to be investigated.

  14. vmguptaphy says:

    Does the PicoPhysics view of space actually being created helps anything?

    It does away with the explaination of red shift of spectrum as dependant on origin, rather it makes it a function of distance traveled.

    The variations in proportionality constants (Hubble’s constant) are explained based on;

    1. Random ness of relative speed of source
    2. Dark matter encountered in the path, which physically devides the path traveled into two sections
    a. Path in which space is expanding/being generated
    b. Path through dark matter, where is space is not expanding(generation of space is counterbalanced by consumption of space by dark energy)

    I presume the experimental results can be explained on above basis.
    If so, we have unary law ‘Space contains Knergy’ integrate observed astronomical phenomenon.

    Picophysics is based no clear distinction between space and energy that shall appeal to human intellect.

    Vijay Gupta

  15. Felix Lev says:

    Dear vmguptaphy,

    In my understanding, your statement is that in your theory you have overcome all the difficulties of the tired-light approach. The topic of this guest post is “Wave packet spreading…” but you do not mention whether you take into account this effect or not. As far as your statement that “generation of space is counterbalanced by consumption of space by dark energy”, please see my response to Leo Vuyk.

  16. vmguptaphy says:

    Wave packet spreading

    Thanks Felix,

    The issue of concern in PicoPhysics is ambiguity in understanding light as wave or particle. When we consider light as wave – even if super position of waves (wave packet), we are going away from light as a beam of particles. PicoPhysics being a deterministic theory do not believe in this duality. It takes wave phenomenon being effect of disturbance created in space due to passage of photons (with contained Knergy oscillating between two states – exclude these oscillations from this discussion, needs more analysis on conservation and space).

    In PicoPhysics, we don’t have such ambiguities. Photons represent a natural unit of Knergy (Pronounced as Kay-Energy). In any particle Knergy is present as integer multiple of quantity in photon.

    The size of photon, in the drift direction is function of its wavelength the spreading of this dimension due to creation of space, reflects in reduction in frequency (or red shift).

    Spreading of group of photons travelling together belongs to a group of phenomenon such as the ones resulting in Laser (maser) emissions. At core the reasoning is shared with interference and diffraction of light.

    To be truthful, I have not meditated over wave particle spreading as a phenomenon. I became satisfied with explanation of interference and diffraction in order to move away from wave nature for light.

    The understanding that is seen as a corollary to unary law ‘Space contains Knergy’ that integrates;

    1. Photo-electric effect
    2. Reflection & Refraction of light
    3. Interference
    4. Diffraction
    5. Uncertainty principle
    6. Effect of gravitation
    7. And astronomical observations (Shift of emission/ absorption spectrum lines from distant stars proportional to distance measured based on intensity of radiation)

    Conclusively established to me, that photons physical represent natural unit of Knergy. Currently I am struggling to communicate the statement ‘Space Contains Energy’ as a factual statement. Once we are thru with this, we will proceed further to understand the statement as unary law – that integrates most of proven physics into a single statement.

    Thanks and Regards,
    Vijay Gupta

    • alexsisxela says:

      I think the problem here could be that PicoPhysics is word-salad, whereas Felix isn’t talking about word-salad, he’s talking about physics, which is a different thing.

      • Felix Lev says:

        Indeed when I see something like “generation of space is counterbalanced by consumption of space by dark energy” I am lost since don’t know the meaning of space, the meaning of dark energy and how dark energy can consume space.

  17. vmguptaphy says:

    tired-light approach & cosmological acceleration

    Dear Felix,

    I googled and found a page on Wikipedia about tired-light approach.
    Sorry I missed your statement on the same. The naming Tired-Light seem to resemble conclusions of PicoPhysics.

    I will be away from computer till July 31. Will come back after studying this from wikipedia and whatever I could make out from Wikipedia.

    Thanks & Regards,
    Vijay Gupta

  18. vmguptaphy says:

    Tired-Light approach

    Sorry for breaking this message multiple times.

    I read in Wikipedia the following statement:
    ” if photons lost energy over time through collisions with other particles in a regular way,”

    It seems this tired-light approach is based on this possibility of photons colliding with other and slows down. I understand at least a few physicist has postulated that for refraction of light as well.

    In PicoPhysics, this is not a feasible explanation. It will go against the basic concepts.

    So validity of issues connected with this hypothesis is not significant for PicoPhysics.

    Thanks & Regards,
    Vijay Gupta

    Note: However I believe in recent experiments leading to postulating the discovery of Higgs Bosons, it is possible that unit objects like photons constituting colliding particles, on collosion separated from mother particles. The observations on these seperated photons lead scientists look seriously at Higgs boson discovery as they will seem to originate not from mother particle but slighly away due to complexity of motion of these photons in these situations..

  19. Anonymous says:

    Dear Leo,

    You say that “For example, a possible process is such that a photon can be absorbed by an atom and reemitted in approximately the same direction.”

    There are at least two problems with this approach:

    1. There is no reason that the photon would be reemitted in approximately same direction. According to quantum mechanics, it could be emitted in any direction.

    2. Even if it were emitted in approximately same direction, that would not be enough to see distant starts, as it would be re-emitted millions or billions of time according to your theory. It would have to be emitted in exactly the same direction to be able to discern distant stars.

    These facts basically disprove your theory.

    • Felix Lev says:

      I am not claiming that I have a theory explaining the observational data. I am claiming only that the approximation when a photon is moving in the empty space along the classical trajectory without spreading is fully unrealistic. So any explanation which does not take spreading into account is not physical. Hence a problem arises how to explain the data. I don’t know the answer. If you have any ideas you are more than welcome to let the readers know. My example with rescattering is only a qualitative illustration of a mechanism when many processes of absorption-reemission do not allow the photon wave function to spread significantly. However, I am not claiming that this is a solution of the problem. Your objection has been repeated many times as an argument against the tired-light approach and this discussion is continuing for many years.

    • Leo Vuyk says:

      Dear ANONYMUS,

      I think by chance, you used my name Leo for Felix Lev right?,

  20. vmguptaphy says:

    Dear Flex Lev,

    You are right. My comments here do not reflect;
    1. Meaning of Space
    2. Dark Energy
    3. Dark Energy Consume Space

    (Energy is the measure of rate of consumption of space by matter in PicoPhysics. The rate of consumption of space by knergy in Dark matter and Cosmic Background Radiation with wavelength 7.35 ceneters is same).

    Let me as Pico Physicist try to state the following;

    When we try to define terms intuitively as simple as length, time or energy, we hit a bottleneck. The basic terms imbibe a concept. Space and Energy also imbibe respective concept. I have stated the concepts used in picophysics are slightly differently aligned then in mainstream physics.

    The energy is embodiment of concept of conservation in mainstream physics. In picophysics, we remove neutralization from concept of conservation to arrive at Konservation concept. We use Konservation (Conservation minus neutralization) to define Knergy (Pronounced as Kay energy). It keep the discussion straight when there is no opportunity to describe Knergy, we use energy as well in substitute of Knergy. We will stop doing the same after Knergy becomes known.

    Space is very difficult element to understand due to required debriefing. I will reserve my reply to space and its consumption by Knergy till August 10. By that time, we will have formulated answer to the same. At this time I will have to refer you [link: Konservation & Knergy [/link]. You will find your answer there.

    Essential elements are also contained in my essay at

    Thanks and best regards,
    Vijay Gupta

  21. vmguptaphy says:

    Dear alexsisxela,

    You are right, One can view PicoPhysics description of nature as a salad of Space and Knergy. But with an antidote – all other ingredients from mainstream physics are missing!!!!!!!!

    There are no elementary particles, as they are also seen as salad of space and knergy. There are no different theories quantum, electromagnetic, newtons inertia, realtivity, bing bang and so on ….. So lot many people may not find it to their liking.

    But to some, simplicity of dealing with only two realities and one law ‘Space contains Knergy’ may be attractive.

    The dressing of optimization of potential energy in mainstream physics that acts as a motive of change is missing and replaced by affinity of space to posses knergy. This is another area where I expect it is difficult to carry people along the thought process of picophysics. So besides law of conservation of energy and momentum (which iare seen as corolary to unary law), the space affinity for Knergy is the main dressing for the salad.

    But your analogy of salad is well appreciated. But the number of engredient are limited. It is not a buffet.

    PicoPhysics is not contemporary mainstream physics.

    Thanks and Regards,
    Vijay Gupta

  22. robert says:

    Dear Felix,

    It would be interesting to look at this problem from the following point of view.

    It is known that the concept of the photon wave function in position
    representation is plagued by difficulties.

    (more details in Landau-Lifshitz Relativistic Quantum Theory)

    In contrast, the photon wave function in momentum representation
    is a more well-defined concept .

    Now, the wave function in momentum representation should not spread due to momentum conservation.

  23. Felix Lev says:

    Dear Robert,
    This is an important point. Indeed the momentum space wave function is well defined and there is no spreading in momentum space. The physical meaning of the photon wave function in coordinate space is discussed in many textbooks. A considerable part of my paper is devoted to the discussion of this problem. I argue that the Newton-Wigner position operator is a good description in semiclassical approximation.

  24. Vijay gupta says:

    In pico-physics nature will no more depend on mathematical treatment. Mathematic will be restored as communication toll for observed nature.

  25. Felix Lev says:

    Dear Vijay Gupta,
    I looked at your cite, at your FQXI essay but the link to wordpress does not work. My impression is that at the moment your explanations are only on a qualitative level. You say that you will have a theory on August 10th. Probably it’s better to discuss your theory when it is ready.

  26. vmguptaphy says:

    By August 10, I expect Archana Gupta will be ready with formulating here essay on further expansion of ‘Space Contains Knergy’ statement that will establish basic corollaries to Unary law that will enable a more purposeful discussion on subject matter than just statements from my side.

    I suggest just use in browser and navigate in concepts menu. Archana will be using part of the contents you will find in attachments in concept menu path.

    Thanks for visiting the site

    Vijay Gupta
    647 780 1624 (From Camp site)

    • alexsisxela says:

      I’m surprised the moderators have allowed you to fill the comment stream with so much nonsense and self-promotion, Vijay. If you think what any of it is relevant to the post or has anything to do with science at all then you’re incredibly naïve.

      • Kulhous says:

        I find them very amusing:) I suspect that these posts are generated by clever random sentence generator rather than by an idiot 🙂

      • D R Lunsford says:

        That’s the great thing about PG’s blog. Make a fool of yourself so all can see! Or say something useful and interesting. That’s how it should work!

      • vmguptaphy says:

        Thanks Alexsisxela,

        Many mainstream physicsts may be thinking on same lines as yours. Relevancy to the post is established as we sdescribe the main issue being wave-particle duality that is relevant to subject matter. This remains not fully resolved.

        Non-sense or self-promotion: It does make sense to me to bring-out the main issues that relate to a discussion topic. The issues touched upon by the author has very complex treatment in mainstream physics. Overtime, questions have been raised and remain unresolved. I have spent time (about 40~50 years) to develop a continuous thought process integrating these issues and resolving at least some of them. I intend to expose the same for posteriety. You may call it self-promotion. It is definately not for making money. May be a little self in me is seeking recognition but I try to minimise the effect of the same in my covert actions.

        I am thankful for all people who have are contributing to keep these forums open to people like me, who view universe differently than mainstream physicsts.

        Thanks & Regards,
        Vijay Gupta

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